What is active surveillance?
Active surveillance is a disease management strategy for low-risk early stage prostate cancer. This strategy monitors the disease for progression but avoids immediate treatment with surgery or radiation.
Who should consider active surveillance?
Men with low-risk, early stage prostate cancer can discuss active surveillance with their doctor. As many as 50% of men with prostate cancer have low-risk disease that will not require immediate or aggressive treatment because it is unlikely to
If you are weighing active surveillance against surgery, one study indicated that men with low-risk prostate cancer can safely delay undergoing a radical prostatectomy for up to 12 months after their cancer diagnosis.1
Active surveillance can be valuable for some men because it allows them to avoid the side effects of treatment.
How does active surveillance work?
With active surveillance, your doctor will monitor your prostate cancer through regular tests to see if it is becoming more aggressive or spreading. This will include repeat PSA tests, digital rectal exams, and biopsies. Through this close, careful monitoring, your healthcare team will know if the cancer becomes more aggressive and you can discuss the right treatment option for you.
If your doctor discusses active surveillance with you, make sure you have a clear plan for follow-up tests and next steps.2
In the video below, you can watch Dr. Lowentritt of Chesapeake Urology discuss active surveillance:
What is the difference between active surveillance and watchful waiting?
You may see the terms “active surveillance” and “watchful waiting” used interchangeably. Although they are very similar strategies, they are used in somewhat different situations.
Watchful waiting is more often used for men who may be older or less healthy, with a shorter life expectancy. In these cases treatment for prostate cancer may be difficult to perform or do more harm than good, considering the years of life left. Regular and repeat tests are performed for disease progression, but not as frequently as in active surveillance.
In the video below, you can watch Dr. Lowentritt of Chesapeake Urology discuss watchful waiting:
 http://www.renalandurologynews.com/prostate-cancer/delaying-prostate-cancer-surgery-safe-in-low-risk-patients/article/396036/  http://health.usnews.com/health-news/patient-advice/articles/2015/01/21/prostate-cancer-to-treat-or-not-to-treat