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Prostate Cancer Glossary

All | # A B C D E G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W
There are currently 19 terms in this directory beginning with the letter P.
Pain Specialist
A doctor, nurse, or pharmacist who is an expert in pain control.
Palliative Care
Treatment that relieves symptoms, such as pain or fatigue, but is not expected to cure disease. Curative treatment can be used at the same time as palliative treatment, but the main purpose of palliative care is to improve the patient's quality of life. Also called symptom management, supportive care, or survivorship care.
A doctor who specializes in diagnosing and classifying diseases in the lab by testing and looking at cells under a microscope. The pathologist determines whether a tumor is benign (not cancer) or cancer, and if cancer, the exact cell type and grade.
A urine test that may suggest the possibility of prostate cancer by examining the expression of PCA3, which is a gene specific to prostate cancer. The PCA3 score is used to determine the need for repeated biopsies.
Penile Implant
Artificial device placed in the penis during surgery to help a man have erections.
Percent-Free PSA (fPSA)
A test that shows how much prostate-specific antigen (PSA) circulates unattached to blood proteins (alone) in the blood. The percent-free PSA (fPSA) is the ratio of how much PSA circulates free compared to the total PSA level. The percentage of free PSA is lower in men who have prostate cancer than in men who do not. A low fPSA may suggest the need for a biopsy.
Perineal Prostatectomy
An operation in which the prostate is removed through an incision (cut) in the skin between the scrotum and anus.
Physical Therapist
A physical therapist can help deal with the physical changes caused by cancer treatment. Before or after surgery or radiation therapy, working with a physical therapist to strengthen the pelvic floor can help to manage or prevent side effects such as urinary incontinence.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
A test that uses radioactive materials to see the shape and function of body parts. It can show images of prostate cancer that may have spread. Also called a PET scan.
Precision Medicine
Medical care designed to optimize efficiency or therapeutic benefit for particular groups of patients, especially by using genetic or molecular profiling.
Someone who has an elevated predisposition to being diagnosed with cancer due to a risk running through their family
Primary Care Physician (PCP)
This is a one's personal physician, most likely an internist or family medicine physician who treats common illnesses and oversees general care.
Prostate Health Index (phi)
The prostate health index combines three blood tests that give a "phi" score, which may help doctors more accurately determine the probability of finding cancer during a biopsy.
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)
Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) is a substance found in the blood that is made by the prostate gland. A PSA test measures the level of PSA and is the leading method of screening for prostate cancer.
Prostate-Specific Antigen Density (PSAD)
The level of PSA in relation to the size of the prostate.
Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)
PSMA is a protein found on the surface of normal prostate cells, but is found in higher amounts on prostate cancer cells. It is used as a target for imaging to diagnose metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer, and is also being explored as a target for medications that can treat prostate cancer.
Swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland.
An artificial replacement of a part of the body through a surgical procedure. Penile prosthesis may be considered if the patient has had erectile dysfunction for some time following cancer treatment and nonsurgical therapy has failed or is unacceptable.
PSA blood test
A PSA test is a blood test that is done to see what a patient's PSA level is and how it changes over time. Changes in PSA can be used to detect early stages of prostate cancer.