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Prostate Cancer Glossary

All | # A B C D E G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W
There are currently 10 terms in this directory beginning with the letter G.
G
Gene
A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. The gene is the basic physical unit of inheritance. A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Genetic
The branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms; relating to genes or heredity.
Genetic Testing
The testing of genes and heredity and how certain traits and qualities are passed to offspring from parents as a result of changes in DNA sequence. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition, help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder, and provide information on how the cancer might behave. Genetic testing is useful in many areas of medicine and can change the medical care you or your family member receives.
Genome
The complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism.
Genomic
The study of all of a person's genes (the genome); field of biology focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Genomic Testing
The testing of a person's entire genome (all of their genes), including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's environment. Genomic testing may identify changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins and can be performed on both biopsy tissue and on tissue from an entire prostate following a prostatectomy.
Germline
Is the population of cells that pass on their genetic material. Germline genetic tests look for inherited, or hereditary, genetic mutations.
Germline Mutation
A germline mutation occurs in a sperm cell or an egg cell and is passed directly from a parent to a child at the time of conception. Because the mutation affects reproductive cells, it can pass from generation to generation. Cancer caused by germline mutations is called inherited or hereditary cancer.
Gleason Score
A grading system used to determine the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. This grading system can be used to choose appropriate treatment options. To find a Gleason score, the tumor cells from the biopsy are looked at under a microscope. A number is assigned to them based on how abnormal they appear. The scale goes from 1 (non-aggressive) to 5 (very aggressive). The numbers of the two most common patterns are added together to create a Gleason Score. The order of the numbers does matter. While you may have an overall Gleason Score of a 7, one that is a 3+4 will progress differently from one that is a 4+3.
Grade Group
Like a Gleason score, a Grade Group is a grading system used to determine the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. It is a rating of how much prostate cancer cells look like normal cells under the microscope. This grading system can be used to choose appropriate treatment options.