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Prostate Cancer Glossary

All | # A B C D E G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W
There are currently 13 terms in this directory beginning with the letter A.
A type of minimally invasive procedure doctors use to destroy abnormal tissue that can be present in many conditions.
Active Surveillance
May be an appropriate treatment option for patients whose prostate cancer was caught early and is considered low-risk. If a man's prostate cancer is caught early, is not causing problems, and is growing very slowly, a physician may forgo treating the tumor at all. Instead, the doctor may recommend that the patient keep actively monitoring his PSA levels.
Treatment given after the primary treatment to increase the chance of a cure. Usually involves chemotherapy or radiation.
Advance Directives
Legal documents that tell the doctor and family what a person wants for future medical care if the person later becomes unable to make decisions for him or herself. This may include whether to start or when to stop life-sustaining treatments. Another type of advance directive lets you choose a person to make decisions for you if you become unable to do it for yourself.
Advanced Cancer
A general term describing stages of cancer in which the disease has spread from where it started (the primary site) to other parts of the body. Also called metastatic cancer.
Sudden hair loss that starts with one or more circular bald patches that may overlap. The condition develops when the immune system attacks the hair follicles, resulting in hair loss.
Hormones found in men and women but with much higher levels in men; commonly called male sex hormones. The major androgen is testosterone.
Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT)
A treatment that stops testosterone, an androgen, from being released or prevents it from acting on prostate cells. Also known as hormone therapy.
Androgen- Dependent
A term used to describe prostate cells that are stimulated by male hormones to grow and multiply, and are suppressed by drugs that stop or disrupt the action of male hormones. Androgen-dependent cells may be normal or cancerous.
Term for prostate cancer cells that no longer respond to hormone therapy; also known as hormone-refractory.
Drugs that block the body's ability to use androgens (male hormones). They are taken as pills, up to 3 times a day. Anti-androgens are usually used along with orchiectomy (surgery) or LHRH analogs (medicines) to help treat prostate cancer.
ARAT Therapy
Androgen receptor-axis-targeted (ARAT) therapy can be used for both mCRPC and nmCRPC. ARAT is similar to ADT and was developed as a treatment to further inhibit AR signaling.
Artificial Sphincter
An inflatable cuff implanted to squeeze the urethra or anus shut and help a person control their urine or stool.